The role of Ukrainian agricultural production
Ukraine is the leader in the production of sunflower oil: 6.4 million tons. This is 35% of world production. If someone will pour all this oil into the Olympic pools, then 2,765 pools would be needed. And if you fill the pools with Spanish olive oil, they will need only 568. In 2017, Ukraine produced more sunflower oil than olive oil in all countries of the world combined! 6.4 million tons of sunflower oil against 2.5 million tons of olive oil.
In 2018, in Ukraine, 70 million tons of various grain crops were harvested: corn, wheat, barley, and others. During the same period, 9.6 million tons of coffee beans were harvested worldwide.
In 2017/2018 MY Ukraine exported 18.5 million tons of corn – this is the third figure in the world. Most of this corn, like other grains, is exported by sea – by huge grain-carriers of the Panamax type. Because it is more convenient and cheaper. But if someone wanted to load all the export corn into grain carriages, then a train with a length of 3.7 thousand km would be required – this is like the distance from Kiev to Madrid.
Evolution of cereal production and exports in Ukraine
The difference between production and exports is fairly stable at around 30 Mt even though production variations can be substantial. The low production levels in 2007/08 and 2010/11 led to lower exports and correspond to periods when international prices were among the highest, evidence of Ukraine’s increasing impact on international trade.
Yield trends for maize, wheat and barley in Ukraine
The increase in surface area is one of the factors explaining the growth of Ukrainian production. Thanks to technical progress, yields have increased significantly: from 2.53 t / ha in 2006-07 to 4.15 t / ha in 2016-17 in wheat or from 3.73 to 6.60 t / ha for corn over the same period. The increase in areas dedicated to cereals is a second explanatory factor. From 2000 to 2018, the area under cereals increased from 11.6 to 14.3 Mha, an average increase of 1.2% per year.
Evolution of Ukrainian Crop
The increase in areas dedicated to cereals is a second explanatory factor. From 2000 to 2018, the area under cereals increased from 11.6 to 14.3 Mha, an average increase of 1.2% per year. Finally, as shown in Figure, the third explanatory factor is credited to changes in the distribution of areas between cereal crops. The portion dedicated to maize (in yellow) has in fact increased from 15% to 30% of the total cereal area, ie an average annual increase of 1.5%. This “cornification” has mainly been done to the detriment of barley (in purple).